The Effects of Implementing a ‘Learning as Making’ Pedagogy on School Mathematics Learning: Primary Students’ Inquiry-based Making with 3D Printing Pens

Principal Investigator. (2019-Present). This design-based research explores the effect of a ‘learning as Making’ pedagogy in mathematics education through designing and implementing a series of teaching experiments in Hong Kong primary schools.

Funded by Research Grant Council (Hong Kong), Early Career Scheme ($499,381 HKD)


  1. Ng, O., Shi, L., & Ting, F. (in press). Exploring Differences in Primary Students’ Geometry Learning Outcomes in Two Technology-enhanced Environments: Dynamic Geometry and 3D Printing. International Journal of STEM Education
  2. Ng, O., & Ferrara, F. (2019). Towards a materialist vision of ‘learning as Making’: The case of 3D Printing Pens in school mathematics. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 18, 925–944. doi: 10.1007/s10763-019-10000-9

Project details


Schools cooperating with us


Teachers joining lesson
co-planing section


Students participating the lessons

‘Learning as Making’

Hands-on, inquiry-based constructionist mathematics learning with 3D Pens.

Collaborations with 8+ schools

Collaborating with primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong on lesson implementations with ‘learning as Making’ pedagogy and 3D Pens.

Lesson Co-planning with 50+ teachers

Producing professional knowledge through lesson co-planning and developing teaching packages.

Workshops for Maths teachers

Organising school-based workshops with teams of Maths teachers to disseminating research results and share best practices.

6+ classroom teaching experiments, 150+ students

Since project commencement in 2019, 6 classroom teaching experiments had been held in 4 schools (3 primary, 1 secondary) with 155 students. More classroom teaching experiments will be held in the next academic year.

Various Maths topics and grade levels

‘Learning as Making’ lessons on:
Rhombus (Grade 4), 3D shapes (Grade 5), Area of triangles (Grade 5), Cross-section of 3D shapes (Grade 6), Euler formula and regular polyhedron (Grade 7)

For more lessons with 3D Pens

Please visit

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